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In its general structure the poem mirrors the complexity of the themes with which it deals, particularly in the recurring concepts of Do-wel, Do-bet, and Do-best, all in the end seen as embodied in Christ. References in the poem suggest that he knew London and Westminster as well as Shropshire, and he may have been a cleric in minor orders in London. Langland clearly had a deep knowledge of medieval theology and was fully committed to all the implications of Christian doctrine.

He was interested in the asceticism of St. Bernard of Clairvaux , and his comments on the defects of churchmen and the religious in his day are nonetheless concomitant with his orthodoxy. William Langland.

Author:William Langland

Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. However, the lollard movement grows.

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John Gower and Richard Forester have Chaucer's power of attorney while he travels abroad. First mystery plays in York. Cecily Champain Chaumpaigne signs a document releasing Chaucer from all actions in the case of her rape or abduction "de raptu meo". Chaucer writes The Parliament of Fowls.

The Peasants' Revolt June The rebellion started in Southwest Essex. Its cause was the proclamation of a poll tax, but a recurrent decline of law and order caused by corruption among the officials contributed to the inflammation of the revolt. A tax commissioner named John Bampton was driven from the village Brentwood.

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Villagers in the area heard the news and the rumour spread that the government planned a collective and exemplary punishment. A widely supported revolt was the result. The peasants lead by Wat Tyler marched via Canterbury, where Archbishop Sudbury was executed and the sheriff caught.

They reached London on the 10th of June. Wat Tyler requested a meeting with King Richard who was 14 years old and met him on the 14th of June. Tyler's first demands, the general pardon of the rebellions and freedom from serfdom to the men of Essex, were granted.


But then Tyler overestimated his power and asked in a second meeting the abolition of lordship except the king's lordship , the handing over of the goods of the church to the parishioners and the reduction of the number of bishops to only one. Tyler was killed in the following fight. The king then addressed himself to the peasants with the following words: "Your leader is dead. Follow me, I am your leader. The heretical views of John Wycliffe are officially condemned. Chaucer retires from Controllership of Customs.

As the lease on the house in Aldgate was relinquished, he probably moved.

A group of noblemen forced themselves on the king as governing council thus reducing the power of certain advisers outside the royal circle. Some parts have been written earlier and the prologue is revised later. It contains a passage in praise of Chaucer. Thomas Usk, an admirer and imitator of Chaucer, was also executed. This was probably his most arduous position.

The clerkship represented a heavier and more direct responsibility than the controllership. As a royal clerk he supervised a great number of craftsmen and property. The arrangement of the purchase, transportation and storage of supplies was Chaucer's responsibility. Chaucer is appointed Commissioner of Walls and Ditches, responsible for works on the Thames between Woolwich and Greenwich. Chaucer is robbed of horse, goods, 20 pounds, 6 shillings, 8 pence at Hatcham Surrey. The robbers were caught, tried and convicted. Robbers take away 10 pounds at Westminster and 9 pounds, 43 pence at Hatcham.

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This brings the total number of robberies to three. However, the legal records differ widely and it is impossible to determine whether there were three robberies or only one. In late medieval England forests were sources of revenue.

Piers Plowman

The forestership was a responsible position which demanded skill in handling money and men. Henry raised an army and returned to England. His campaign was successful and Richard was arrested and imprisoned.